The ophthalmology is a study about eye diseases which are not discovered abruptly in this modern age rather these studies have linked with ancient time even before the Christ. This word is derived from the Greek word, the ophthalmos having meaning of ‘eye’ or the ‘visioning’. In terminological sense this is a particular word that indicates ocular problems. Study about the eyes is not limited to human eyes because there is no longer difference between the human eyes and the animal eyes. All types of remedies like medicines or surgical operations are covered in the scope of ophthalmology and such remedies are not invented by a single person or a particular team at a particular time period. There are long historical evolutionary steps to control the inner and the outer problems of eyes by different versed people in ophthalmology.
Evolutionary Steps of Ophthalmology:
At very first stage, an Indian doctor discovered more than 76 eye diseases in which many inner problems are surgically controllable. Moreover, he also discovered many surgical tools for this purpose at this age of round about 800 BC. This Indian doctor named ‘Sushruta’ also known as the first ophthalmologist according to the modern techniques about the eye cure had written his book “Sushruta Samhita” which shows more than three hundred surgical techniques and prescriptions about ocular problems. Additionally, the problems can be covered with help of tools and instruments which are also presented in this book. Sushruta, the father of surgery had divided the eye problems into eight different classes.
At very next step, the Hippocrates and the Aristotle was main participant in the evolution of this phenomenon about eye care and cure. They defined the different parts of eye as, cornea, sclera, fluid and inner layer of the pupil. They performed their experiments on the animal eyes to define the different parts of the eyes and inner layers of the eye. They proved the link of eyes with brain via tubes and such tubes provide the commanding authority to brain.
In addition to the previous researches on eye relating subjects, the Rufus, an ancient Greek scientist also discovered much other important information about the cerement of eyes. He added one more layer over the eye to the Aristotle’s approach and said that there are two covers, cornea to lens and lens to retina. His concepts were nearest the modern concepts of ophthalmology.
Essentials for Ophthalmologist:
Ophthalmologists are special doctors for eye diseases who become capable to check the eyes after passing the basic examination for eye relating studies from a recognized college or school. In different countries the criteria for eye specialist doctors is different but all required theoretical study as well as the practical application certificates.
In India and Pakistan, after completing the MBBS, the post graduate program for specialization starts and it allow becoming specialist in eye diseases as ophthalmologist named DOMS in India and FCPS in Pakistan. The minimum training period for ophthalmologist is two years after completing the study period.
Although there are much knowledge and surgical skills available about the ophthalmology yet, many diseases are snatching the visionary powers of the people till now.